By Stacy Fang-Ching Teng
The Puyuma humans stay in southeastern Taiwan in Taitung urban and Peinan Township in Taitung County . There are nonetheless fourteen extant Formosan (Austronesian) languages in Taiwan , yet purely 13 indigenous teams are formally acknowledged by way of the Taiwanese executive. the current learn investigates the Nanwang dialect of the Puyuma language, spoken via the folk in Nanwang and Paoshang Suburbs of Taitung urban in southern Taiwan .The goal of this grammar is to explain the phonology and morphosyntax of Puyuma. The paintings is descriptive in nature, and the theoretical framework hired is simple Linguistic idea (BLT), following Dixon (1994, 1997) and Dryer (2006). BLT emphasis es the necessity to describe each one language in its personal phrases, instead of impos ing on it options derived from different languages . hence, during this research, the writer abandons conventional phrases utilized by linguists learning Philippine-type languages, resembling 'agent focus', 'patient focus', 'locative focus', or 'instrumental focus', and replaces them with the phrases like 'transitive' and 'intransitive' which are extra popular to lots of the world's linguists.
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Additional info for A reference grammar of Puyuma, an Austronesian language of Taiwan
He proposes ten first-order groups, based mainly on shared phonological innovations: Atayalic (Atayal, Seediq), Northwest Formosan (Saisiyat, Kulon, Pazeh), East Formosan (Basay-Trobiawan, Kavalan, Amis, Siraya), Western Plains (Taokas-Babuza, Papora-Hoanya, Thao), Tsouic (Tsou, Saaroa, Kanakanavu), Puyuma, Paiwan, Rukai, Bunun, and Malayo-Polynesian. In Ho and Yang’s (2000) classification, which is also based on shared phonological innovations, there are six subgroups, and Puyuma and Paiwan are the only single-member groups.
According to Li (1991:26) and Ting (1978:325-326), only the Nanwang dialect preserves the voiced stops; they have become fricatives in the other dialects. Also the voiceless retroflex 1 The orthography adopted here was the conventional usage in the village ten years ago. / and /"/ are written as tr and dr, but lr stands for /l/, and /#/ is written as l. Logically speaking we would expect lr to stand for the retroflex lateral /#/ instead of /l/. The reason for not adopting the official version in this thesis is to avoid the potential confusion that lr stands for a sound that has nothing to do with the curling of the tongue.
Penabkas Temepa ! Tempa kameli ! kamli temebul ! tembul TemekeL ! TemkeL DikeDan ! DikDan likeTi ! likTi However, if the penultimate syllable is a closed syllable, schwa deletion is prohibited (because it will result in a forbidden CCC consonant cluster). kasalengseng ! 1 General rule for stress assignment Word stress in Puyuma falls on the last syllable, and is thus non-phonemic. Puyuma word stress is mainly marked by greater intensity, a higher degree of pitch and longer duration. 3. 4 illustrates the pitch and intensity of the phrase inaba=ku “I am fine”, and it shows that the syllable with the highest degree of pitch is not on the last syllable of inaba; on the contrary, the last syllable (ba) has the lowest degree of pitch.
A reference grammar of Puyuma, an Austronesian language of Taiwan by Stacy Fang-Ching Teng