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By Christopher Ehret

Nilo-Saharan is among the 4 significant language households at the African continent. It extends eastwards from the Niger to Western Ethiopia and additional southwards to Northern Tanzania. whereas the prestige of Nilo-Saharan as a phylum has been principally authorized on account that Greenberg (1963), the interior class has remained arguable. the current quantity is meant as a decisive contribution in the direction of the verification of the interior courting of the Nilo-Saharan languages. utilizing common sound correspondences for verifying degrees of inner dating used to be started within the Eighties, yet this paintings takes up the consequences completed hitherto and keeps from this foundation. New resources are considered: except reconstructing consonants, vowels and tone, the learn additionally contains derivational and inflectional morphology in addition to pronouns. The e-book comprises major elements. the 1st half (chapter 2-8) is devoted to the reconstruction of consonants, vowels and tone, to the subclassification of Nilo-Saharan, verbal and nominal derivation, inflection and the pronominal process. the second one half (chapter nine) is an etymological dictionary of 1,606 roots, complemented by means of annotations and reflexes of the roots within the specific languages. greater than 10,000 roots are brought up without delay. The research of the 1st half (chapter 2-8) is predicated at the facts prepared in bankruptcy nine. crucial results of Ehret's paintings matters the connection of Songay within the Nilo-Saharan context. the writer argues convincingly that Songay could be considered as an essential member of the Nilo-Saharan relatives. Connections with Mande has to be noticeable as borrowings from Songay into Mande. additionally, the verified usual sound correspondences and the reconstructed Proto-Nilo-Saharan vocabulary let for drawing up phonological histories of every language and distinguishing among mortgage as opposed to long term inherited phrases.

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Son origine serait très ancienne, remontant aux débuts de la République, mais le dépôt des archives publiques ne s’y constitue que lentement. Il sert jusqu’en 79 av. -C. Il est ensuite remplacé (ou plutôt complété, comme le dit Quintilienl8) par le tabularium, au pied du Capitole, reconstruit par Quintus Lutatius Catulus en 78 av. , après le grand incendie. L’emplacement « a été soigneusement choisi, c’est évident : la mémoire de la ville va dès lors constituer symboliquement le décor de tous les actes les plus importants de la cité et le support de la colline sacrée19.

On sait que les Romains s’efforcent de réserver les emplois subalternes à des esclaves. À Tlos de Lycie, un nommé Tryphon, esclave public, est responsable des archives publiques. Un décret de Colophon mentionne « le conservateur des documents, Callippos32. -C. (règne de Claude). Les bureaux de la métropole et ceux des villages doivent déposer une copie de tous les actes à la « bibliothèque des actes publics » (tôn dèmosiôn logôn). Cette institution archivistique est dirigée par un « gardien des archives » qui doit recevoir les documents, les classer, les ordonner et les mettre à la disposition de ceux qui ont besoin de les consulter.

GUYONVARC’H, Les druides, op. , chap. V, p. 263-269. 42. Henriette WALTER, L’aventure des langues en Occident, op. , p. 71-73. 43. F. LE ROUX et C. GUYONVARC’H, Les druides, op. , chap. V, p. 265. 44. R. DELMAIRE, Les institutions du Bas-Empire romain, de Constantin à Justinien. Les institutions civiles palatines, Paris, Cerf et CNRS, 1995, p. 65-69. 45. J. LYDIUS, De magistratibus populi romani, Leipzig, éd. R. Wuensch, 1903, 3-31-35. 46. Cette opinion était déjà émise par Robert-Henri BAUTIER, « Les archives », dans C.

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A Historical-Comparative Reconstruction of Nilo-Saharan by Christopher Ehret


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